|In the field of clinical medicine, diagnostic accuracy studies refer to the degree of agreement between the index test and the reference standard for the discriminatory ability to identify a target disorder of interest in a patient. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve offers a graphical display the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity at each cutoff for a diagnostic test and is useful in assigning the best cutoff for clinical use. In this end, the ROC curve analysis is a useful tool for estimating and comparing the accuracy of competing diagnostic tests. This paper reviews briefly the measures of diagnostic accuracy such as sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve (AUC) that is a summary measure for diagnostic accuracy across the spectrum of test results. In addition, the methods of creating an ROC curve in single diagnostic test with five-category discrete scale for disease classification from healthy individuals, meaningful interpretation of the AUC, and the applications of ROC methodology in clinical medicine to determine the optimal cutoff values have been discussed using a hypothetical example as an illustration.