|The measurement of viral load in HIV-1 infected patients is essential for the establishment of a therapeutic strategy. Several commercial assays have shown shortcomings in quantifying rare genotypes of HIV-1 such as minor groups of N and O. In this study, the HIV-1 RT-qPCR assay was developed. The primers and probe of HIV-1 were designed to target the pol gene and to increase the detection efficiency of various subtypes including group N and O. The HIV-1 quantitative RT-qPCR assay was assessed for its analytical performance and clinical evaluation. The LoD was determined to 33.9 IU/ml. The LoD of several subtypes including A, C, D, CRF_01AE, F, CRF_02AG, G and H, were determined to less than 40 IU/ml. The HIV-1 quantitative RT-qPCR assay was evaluated using the China National Reference Panel of HIV-1 RNA to determine the analytical performance. The results were all within the acceptable range. The clinical evaluation was performed at Hunan CDC in China. The clinical evaluation results were compared with those of the China domestic commercial kit. A significant correlation (fresh samples; R2=0.84, P＜0.001, frozen samples; R2=0.76, P＜0.001) between the two systems was observed for 64 fresh samples and 76 frozen samples with viral loads, and the Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement (98.4%, 96.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the HIV-1 quantitative RT-qPCR assay had comparable analytical performance with several commercial kits. The study provides basic data for the research of HIV-1 diagnosis and the development of P＜HIV-1 molecular diagnostic assay.