This paper presents results on a study of the Rayleigh wave scattering in concrete with a steel bar using transient elastic waves. To study the characteristics of the scattered waves induced by a steel bar in concrete, a three-dimensional finite element method was adopted. A case for elastic wave propagation parallel to the steel bar is discussed. The effect of the cover thickness and steel bar diameter on the Rayleigh wave was studied. To confirm the numerical investigations, a concrete specimen containing a steel bar was made, and corresponding transient elastic wave experiments were conducted. It is believed that the result of this study can serve as an important reference in a nondestructive evaluation of concrete with a steel bar.