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북한 신경제 관리체제의 평가와 전망
분야 사회과학 > 경제학
저자 박광작 ( Kwang Jack Park )
발행기관 한국비교경제학회
간행물정보 비교경제연구 2003년, 제10권 제1호, 87~127쪽(총41쪽)
파일형식 0d700138.pdf [다운로드 무료 PDF 뷰어]
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영문초록
This paper examines the contents, characteristics and problems of the economy management improvement measures, which the North Korean authorities have adopted on July 1, 2002. According to the "political economy" theory on which the socialist system in North Korea is based, the new improvement measures are focused on combining the centralized planning of structurally important sectors with some elements of indirect steering of state- owned enterprises through economic levers. For this purpose, a reform of the decision making process was undertaken. Some management powers were transferred to the enterprises themselves, especially those concerning decisions on profit targets and the use of profits. The central authorities are responsible for the planning of strategically important structures. On the other hand, the state-owned enterprises have to achieve their technical-managerial objectives on the basis of relative autonomy. The North Korean Authorities have obviously acknowledged that political and moral encouragement alone did not have enough positive effects to help improve the economic performance and the productivity of the planning system. Therefore, material incentive measures were introduced into the broader scope of the planning system. The reforms also included an extensive reform of prices and an improvement of procedures of cost accounting by enterprises. But the socialist political-economic principle of profit-and loss accounting was maintained. So the production activity of state-owned enterprises is still based on a combination of centralized planning and managerial independence (relative autonomy) and initiative of enterprises. The activities of enterprises arc carried out in accordance with the planned goals following the principle of profit-and loss accounting, which now has become a more important lever of rmnagement of the economy by planning than the political-ideological encouragement. Another principle underlying profit-and loss accounting is that of material incentives, which means not only economic stimulation of enterprises but also material encouragement of their workers. For the purpose of boosting the production, such levers as profit, prices and bonuses are used. The material encouragement of workers takes the form of various bonuses and other rewards from special incentive funds. Additionally, the rice rationing system and the performance-oriented rewards system were also readjusted. But the relative independence of enterprises will not be of great help for reactivating the exhausted economy and promoting the production activities because it is still very much limited through excessive centralization in form of planning directives and through impediments created by the existing state bureaucracy. Although the State Price Determination Bureau has reset the prices of all products, with special consideration of rice production costs, the fixed price system has not been abolished. With rigidly fixed prices the serious distortions in the cost structure can not be overcome. As long as the economic process of North Korea`s command system is regulated through centralized control by the state, North Korea`s economy will not be able to solve the information problem, the productivity problem and the motivation problem. As a result, it will continuously be confronted with low productivity of the whole production process, a lack of products and failed allocation of resources. Accordingly, the new system improvement measures will have no significant positive mid- and long term effects on the promotion of the production. The conclusion is as follows: North Korea`s socialist economy is permanently plagued by productivity problems and shortage of products. These system-immanent problems can not be resolved through the recent planning improvement measures, which have granted some limited autonomy to state-owned enterprises but have left the socialist command system in the economy basically unchanged
 
 
북한경제, 북한개혁, 북한 경제관리 개선조치
 
 
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