Liver transplantation is curative therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma especially if ,within Milan criteria, 4 year survival and recurrence-free survival was reported to be 85% and 92%, respectively. Herein we report a patient who experience rapid recurrence following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma within Milan criteria. A 52 year-old-men patient with known liver cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B virus was admitted for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Abdominal CT revealed two nodules less than 3 cm in right hepatic lobe. After single session of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), the patient underwent LDLT. After seven months following transplantation, recurrent HCC was detected on transplanted liver with concurrent metastatic nodule in lung. Although TACE and metastsectomy were performed for recurrent intrahepatic mass and lung metastasis, recurrent HCC showed rapid progression and patient died of progressive tumor after 10 months following LDLT.