Heavy Metal Tolerance of Fungi Isolated from Contaminated Soi
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This study was conducted to investigate the tolerance of some resistant fungal strains from soils contaminated with heavy metals. Various fungal strains were isolated from soil samples collected from studied sites which heavy metals and other pollutants have been emitted in effluents for several years. Fungi isolated belong to different genera; however, Penicillium spp. showed the most frequent species. The microbial number was remarkably higher in the control soil than contaminated soil samples collected from mining areas. Pb2+ and Zn2+ had the highest concentration in the polluted soils ranging from 89 - 3,521 ppm and 98 - 4,383 ppm, respectively. The minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) of Pb+2 and Zn+2 showed the highest values against the fungal strains. Ni+2 and Co+2 were the lowest contaminants in the polluted soils with the concentration of 5 to 12.1 ppm and 1.8 to 4.8 ppm, respectively. The tested resistant strains showed the strongest inhibition for Ni+2 and Co+2 up to 200-400 ppm. Cadmium was the most highly toxic heavy metal for most of strains, however, 1 mM of Cr3+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ accelerated the growth of Penicillium verrucosum KNU3. Cu+2 and Zn+2 at concentration of 1 mM did not affect the growth rate P. funiculosum KNU4. Tolerance of fungal species to heavy metals appears to be strain and origin dependent.
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