|The present study evaluated the effect of chitosan on the changes of soil chemical properties, soil microbial population, and yield of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for eco-friendly agriculture in an upland field. We utilized four treatment groups, control, foliar spray, soil drench, and foliar spray + soil drench with chitosan, and analyzed these variations throughout the seven, fourteen, and twenty one days interval. The pH values, organic matter, and available phosphate in the upland soil at the harvesting stage decreased in the chitosan treatment. The populations of bacteria, actinomyces, and fungi in the upland field were increased in plots treated with chitosan. The chlorophyll content of leaves was no significant differences between the control and the chitosan treatments, while calcium content of leaves was significantly higher in the chitosan treatments than in the control. In addition, the nitrogen content of leaves was no significant differences between the foliar spray and the soil drench. The yield of red pepper was significantly higher in the control (383 kg 10a-1) than the chitosan treatments and the yield of soil drench with chitosan reached up to 95% of control.