Purpose: In the present study, we investigated the clinical characteristics of tuberculosis in school-age children and adolescents, which is important as a reservoir for future disease burden. Methods: Ninety patients, aged from 6 to 18 years, who were diagnosed and treated with tuberculosis during the period from January 2005 to July 2011, were enrolled. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records and investigated clinical characteristics of the patients. Results: Eight patients were 6 to 12 (9%) and 82 were over 13 years of age (91%). There was a significantly higher percentage of males than females in the latter age group (P <0.01). Route of infection was not confirmed in 74 patients, and 16 patients were diagnosed through the school or military medical examinations with no clinical symptoms. Seventy patients (78%) were presented with pulmonary tuberculosis. Chronic persistent coughing was the most common presenting symptom, and both upper lobes were most frequently involved. Nineteen patients over 13 years of age had adult-type cavitary tuberculosis. The positive results for acid-fast smears or cultures were not high, and the rate of positive tuberculin skin test was 88%. The most frequent adverse effects of anti-tuberculosis treatment were hepatotoxicity, hyperuricemia, and gastrointestinal disorders. The duration of the treatment was much prolonged in 8 patients who had drug-resistant tuberculosis. Conclusion: Our study showed that pulmonary tuberculosis should be suspected in the adolescents who have prolonged respiratory symptoms. It also indicates that pulmonary tuberculosis in adolescents has similar characteristics to tuberculosis in adults, which suggests the potential important role of adolescent tuberculosis in community disease transmission.