元dandaa demchigdorji`s 文稿 (1863-1932) 的歷辭: 蒙古譯本(1917-1928): 《元史》卷七十及七十一之宮廷十二律
분야
인문과학 > 동양사
저자
( Erdenechimeg Luvsannorov )
발행기관
한국몽골학회
간행물정보
몽골학 2012년, 제33권 57~83쪽(총27쪽)
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59300507.pdf [무료 PDF 뷰어 다운로드]
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    The aim of the presentation is to introduce the “Yuan shi (元史)” (Sutra manuscript of the Yuan dynasty). It is one of the most important sources of history for the study of the 13-14th centuries. This basic history is comprised of 210 juan (卷 volumes), five of which are dedicated to the discussion of art and culture, specifically musical heritage and custom. This research paper is a discussion of volumes 70 and 71. The “History of the Yuan” is divided into four parts. 1.“Benji” (本記ug temdeglel,) is the basic annals of 47 chapters; 2. “Zhi” (oillogo,志) records, 58 chapters; 3. “Biao” (iltgel, 表) genealogical tables, 8 chapters; 4. “Lie zhuan” (olon shastir, 列傳) biographies, 97 chapters. The second part called “Zhi” consists of (omitted “the“) many records such as “li yue” (禮 악) ceremony and music. The second section contains the following five topics related to palace music which serve as the focus of this paper: 1) clothing, 2) dance, 3) wedding music commemorative box ( book)-musical instruments, 4) musical sounds and 5) drama. The History of the Yuan was originally written in ancient Chinese. “In the first year of Hong Wu (洪武), emperor Zhu Yuan Zhang (朱元璋), the founder of the Ming (明) dynasty, issued an edict calling for the compilation of the “Yuan shi”. In the second year of Hong Wu the bureau for composing the “Yuan shi” was opened and a group of 16 historians started to compose it.” (Atwood, 2003, 3). Only two handwritten copies of this 210-volume “History of the Yuan” are in existence in the Mongolian National Library. Therefore they are not available either for researchers or the general public to read. Even though modern Mongolians can now read the ancient language, the terms, usage and theory are obscure. An additional problem for language and music researchers is lack of familiarity with ancient music terminology. Records of “the Yuan shi” shows that 12 temperaments of the musical sounds were used in the ceremonies, and listed a poetical name for each tone and note. “Two musical arrangers produced musical selections with consonant and dissonant sounds” (vol 71). The 12 notes used in palace music. Each have a specific name and it is an Chinese musical theory that the Chinese names are connected to the Mongolian names 12 tones of the human voice, to 12 animals, 12 directions and 12 months of the year. But Ancient Mongolians used to 12 sounds names from the hours of the day as exemplified by the sundial shadows and moon shadows in the ancient Mongolian yurt). In the same way that 12 animals are connected to the 12 hours of day light and darkness, they are also connected to the 12 sounds and micro sounds in Mongolian Horse headed fiddle. Between F and G tones divided into twelve sharp and twelve flat microtones temperaments are totally 24 microtones. From the 13th century until today these manuscripts have been waiting for a researcher. Research into music enlightens the field in regard to (omitted “the”) etiquette, aesthetics, ethics, artistic skills and the education of children. What is the legacy of palace music in Asian music today? Why did the palace music die out? In Europe, complex orchestral music continued to develop and grow richer from the middle ages until today. It is evident that the kings valued the palace music. The traditional historical view of this period depicts an aggressive war -like society. However, the research in the palace music described in the Yuan shi gives a more balanced picture of the culture and society of the ancient Asians. The descriptions of dance costuming, drama, aesthetics and musical temperaments in the Yuan shi inform the modern artist and music educator, of very important connections between the ancient and modern traditions in Asian music. The honor in respect that surrounded the musical ceremonies of the ancient palace might seem lost in the activity in the modern life. It is this researcher`s hope that further study of these ancient practices will again bring sense of respect and cultural context to today`s artistic endeavors in the world of Asian music. The translation and study of these handwritten books-the” The History of the Yuan” - brings additional meaning to the practice and development of Asian music. This is of a part of world music history that will not be lost. of respect and cultural context to today`s artistic endeavors in the world of Asian music.
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