This paper is focused on the dilemma of free will as it is interpreted by Dostoevsky and Neuroscience. Dostoevsky`s novel Notes from Underground has been regarded as an explicit polemic with Chernyshevsky`s rationalism and determinism. Dostoevsky`s polemic against determinism foreshadows today`s free will debate in neuroscience in that Dostoevsky`s Underground Man thinks that man has free will and he can do anything against his own benefit just in order to prove that he is free and he is not regulated by the law of nature. However, in actuality his life proceeds as if he is guided by some invisible power and all his effort to prove the existence of free will ends up with total mental bankruptcy. Similarly, today`s neuroscientists like to assert that there is no free will, but their assertion is far from solving the free will debate. The scientist Benjamin Libet showed in an experiment on human consciousness that unconscious processes in the brain precedes the initiation of conscious action based on free will. If this is true, there arises the problem of responsibility. If human condition is genetically determined, no one is responsible for anything. For this reason, many neuroscientists are still in some midway between determinism and free will in spite of Libet experiment.