Comparative studies on mathematical modeling cognition feature were carried out between 15 excellent high school third-grade science students (excellent students for short) and 15 normal ones (normal students for short) in China by utilizing protocol analysis and expert-novice comparison methods and our conclusions have been drawn as below. 1. In the style, span and method of mathematical modeling problem representation, both excellent and normal students adopted symbolic and methodological representation style. However, excellent students use mechanical representation style more often. Excellent students tend to utilize multiple-representation while normal students tend to utilize simplicity representation. Excellent students incline to make use of circular representation while normal students incline to make use of one-way representation. 2. In mathematical modeling strategy use, excellent students tend to tend to use equilibrium assumption strategy while normal students tend to use accurate assumption strategy. Excellent students tend to use sample analog construction strategy while normal students tend to use real-time generation construction strategy. Excellent students tend to use immediate self-monitoring strategy while normal students tend to use review-monitoring strategy. Excellent students tend to use theoretical deduction and intuitive judgment testing strategy while normal students tend to use data testing strategy. Excellent students tend to use assumption adjustment and modeling adjustment strategy while normal students tend to use model solving adjustment strategy. 3. In the thinking, result and efficiency of mathematical modeling, excellent students give brief oral presentations of mathematical modeling, express themselves more logically, analyze problems deeply and thoroughly, have multiple, quick and flexible thinking and the utilization of mathematical modeling method is shown by inspiring inquiry, more correct results and high thinking efficiency while normal students give complicated protocol material, express themselves illogically, analyze problems superficially and obscurely, have simple, slow and rigid thinking and the utilization of mathematical modeling method is shown by blind inquiry, more fixed and inaccurate thinking and low thinking efficiency.