Organic fruit production has increased due to consumer`s interest and government`s political support for environmentally-friendly agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cover plants on soil microbial community and establish the fruit cultivation method by organic farming techniques. Cover plants used as an organic nutrient source in an apple orchard were rye and barley, the Gramineae and red clover and hairy vetch, the Leguminosae. In the effects of cover plants on the soil chemical characteristics, the soil pH values were higher than that of conventional organic pear orchard. The content of P showed no significant difference between control and cover plant plots. Organic matter level was similar in control and Gramineae cover plant plots, while organic matter content in cover plants belong to Leguminosae was lower than that of control plot. K content was lower in the plots treated with rye and red clover than control plot, while K content in hairy vetch treated plot was higher than control plot. Ca content was lower in control plot than in cover plant treated plots. Concentrations of Mg in the plots treated with barley and hairy vetch was lower than control plot. In August rye and red clover covered soil showed higher bacterial community density than that of control soil and barley treated soil showed highest Actinomycetes community density among treatments. Barley and hairy vetch soils showed higher level of fungi community density than that of control soil in August. In pyrosequencing analysis barley treated soil showed highest distribution ratio of Actinomycetes among treatment. Our findings might be used as basic data for choosing cover plant with effective organic matter decomposition and nutrition supply capacity.