This study examines history of Korean peony patterns and characteristics of peony patterns on the fabric. It is classified according to expression methods, and it analyzes the characteristics of 71 kinds of peony woven on 66 Korean fabrics. First, it was observed that 38 of the 66 studied fabrics (57.6%) were relics from the 17th century, and from this it can be deduced that the peony patterns began to appear regularly around the latter half of the 16th century and were used habitually in the 17th century. Second, 71 kinds on 66 fabrics can be divided into Real Type, Design Type, and Abstraction Type according to expression methods. Among these types, 49 kinds of them are Real Types (69.0%), forming the greatest part and 19 kinds belonging to the Design Type (26.8%), and lastly, 3 kinds were under the Abstraction Type (4.2%). In particular, peony patterns of Design Types and Abstraction Types from the 17th century and from the 19th century to the 20th century were more prevalent, compared with those before the 16th century or the 18th century. Third, Real Types shown on the Korean fabrics are subdivided into 9 types, and the Real Type A among them, which describes to be as real as possible, is 12 kinds, the largest number of them. Therefore, real and natural pattern of peony is the favorite type in Korea, while rather emphasized pattern of peony is the more preferred pattern in China. And also Design Types are subdivided into 6 types again; There are 6 kinds of design type A, the largest part of Design Types. Patterns of Design Type A are most similar to real peony flowers, but more simplified than the Real Type A. This result also contrasted with the trend in China, where the Design Type C, expressed petals in detail was the favored pattern. Fourth, 9 kinds of unique types are found in Korean fabrics, especially Real Type M has not been shown on Chinese fabrics. Real type M, consisting of two parts, inner and outer, where two curve lines between two parts appear as antennas of a butterfly.