Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is one of the traditional crops and there is a growing global attention as a healthy food because of its rich nutrition. Buckwheat allergy is an IgE mediated immediate-type reaction and it is considered to be a critical allergen because it causes severe allergic reactions by small amount of intake particularly in children. In this issue of Buckwheat allergy, research papers about various topics - major allergens of buckwheat, clinical reports, detection methods and methods to reduce allergenic reaction - were reviewed. Major buckwheat allergens reported and listed on IUIS are Fag e 1 with molecular weight 24kDa, Fag e 2 with molecular weight 16kDa and Fag e 3 with molecular weight 19kDa. PCR and ELISA methods have been used to detect buckwheat allergens. Recently, the LC/MS method has been developed to apply to detect buckwheat allergens. In addition to detection methods development, there have been efforts to reduce buckwheat allergens using chemical and/or physical methods, but not commercialized yet.