Pleurotus nebrodensis is an edible and commercially available mushroom in Korea. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the anticancer and immunopotentiating activities of crude polysaccharides, extracted in methanol, neutral saline, and hot water (hereafter referred to as Fr. MeOH, Fr. NaCl, and Fr. HW, respectively) from the fruiting bodies of P. nebrodensis. B-Glucan and protein contents in Fr. MeOH, Fr. NaCl, and Fr. HW extracts of P. nebrodensis ranged from 23.79~36.63 g/100 g and 4.45~6.12 g/100 g, respectively. Crude polysaccharides were not cytotoxic against sarcoma 180, HT-29, NIH3T3, and RAW 264.7 cell lines at a range of 10~2,000ug/mL. Intraperitoneal injection with crude polysaccharides resulted in a life prolongation effect of 11.76~27.06% in mice previously inoculated with sarcoma 180. Treatment with Fr. NaCl resulted in an increase in the numbers of spleen cells by 1.49 fold at the concentration of 50ug/mL, compared with control. Fr. HW improved the immuno-potentiating activity of B lymphocytes through an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity by 1.65 fold, compared with control at 200ug/mL. Maximum production of nitric oxide (14.3uM) was recorded in the Fr. NaCl fraction at 200ug/mL. Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1B (IL-1B), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly higher, compared to control, and IL-6 production was highest, in contrast to TNF-α, IL-1B, and positive control, concanavalin at the tested concentration of the various fractions. Results of the current study suggest that polysaccharides extracted from P. nebrodensis have a strong anticancer effect and may be useful as an ingredient of biopharmaceutical products for treatment of cancer.