The insect midgut epithelium is generally lined with a unique chitin and protein structure, the peritrophic membrane (PM), which facilitates food digestion and protects the gut epithelium. We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify the extracted proteins from the silkworm PM to obtain an in-depth understanding of the biological function of the silkworm PM components. A total of 305 proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 8.02 kDa to 788.52 kDa and the isoelectric points ranging from 3.39 to 12.91, were successfully identified. We also found several major classes of PM proteins, i.e. PM chitin-binding protein, invertebrate intestinal mucin, and chitin deacetylase. The protein profile provides a basis for further study of the physiological events in the PM of Bombyx mori.