Improved immunosuppressive therapies for liver transplantation (LT) have reduced the incidence of allograft rejection while increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Every effort for reducing infectious complication should be made to ensure that LT candidates, their household members, and healthcare workers have completed the full complement of recommended vaccinations prior to LT. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral pathogen that negatively impacts on the outcome of LT. To negate the adverse effects of CMV on outcome, its prevention, whether through antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy, is regarded as an essential component to the medical management of LT recipients. On the other hand, prophylaxis against invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis is not routinely recommended in all solid organ transplant recipients. Although some data show a low risk of hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid in patients with compensated liver disease awaiting LT, treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in LT candidates or recipients is still controversial. Despite implement of preventive strategies, various opportunistic infections can develop in LT recipients. Early and specific diagnosis of infections is essential to guide treatment and minimize nonessential antibiotics. Invasive diagnostic procedures are often required for accurate and timely diagnosis.