Purpose: The instruction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to students has been advocated in many countries. To formulate an effective policy for high school students in Korea, data on attitudes toward CPR and the levels of knowledge in this technique for this population are needed. Methods: A thirty-question questionnaire was given to Korean high school juniors to assess their attitudes toward and knowledge level of CPR. Two hundred seventy one of 341 students (79.5%) responded to the questionnaire and their male to female ratio was 1:2.2. Results: Most students (n=262, 96.7%) had heard of CPR, mainly through television (n=193, 71.2%) or a school activity (160, 59.0%). Only 50(18.5%) and 15(5.5%) students responded that they would be willing to provide CPR to a "family or friend" and "stranger", respectively. One hundred twunty four students (45.8%) had received some form of education on CPR, but only 10(3.7%) had received an advanced education (although most were willing to be educated further on CPR). The most common reason for not receiving CPR training was a lack of knowledge for training resources (n=79, 53.7%). Only 88(32.4%) students understood the purpose of an automated external defibrillator. Although half of the students (147, 54.2%) correctly chose the location for CPR chest compression, only 19.2% and 16.6% correctly responded to questions on the appropriate compression speed and depth, respectively. Conclusion: Although students receive some exposure on the importance of CPR, their willingness to perform CPR and their knowledge level of AEDs and CPR is not adequate. A systemic approach for educating and training students in CPR is needed.