Virginia Woolf as a modernist writer challenges to represent the traumatic event such as World War I in the first half of the 20th century and performs the mourning ceremony for her parents, especially her mother in To the Lighthouse. She adopts and revises elegiac conventions and traditions to invent an experimental narrative form of mourning for both communal and private loss. On the one hand, by virtue of the complex interweaving of public events and private memories and emotions, she brings consolation to death and loss, but on the other hand, she conceals her critical attitude to the Victorian society and European civilization which causes devastation and violence. This paper focuses on theorizations of trauma that view the total war as entailing a collapse of the distinction between public and private realms. Analyzing how the traumas caused by World War I are represented in Woolf`s modernist novel, this paper attempts a different approach to the problem that her high modernism has repudiated history and escaped political issue. The explicit historical reference seems to be absent or marginalized in a highly autobiographical novel, To the Lighthouse. With the suppressed history itself beneath the narrative`s surface, Woolf modernized the elegy to mourn death and loss in the twentieth century. Further, Woolf attempted to combine modernist novel with pastoral elegy with the aim of participating in social practices as a mourner. While Woolf repeatedly seeks a consolation for the shock, alienation and loss to which the militarism and imperialism of the British Empire led, she refuses deliberately “working through” despair and grief. Woolf`s endless mourning compels us to refuse easy consolation and accept responsibility for the painful task of remembering the catastrophic losses of World War I. Rereading To the Lighthouse concentrated on three central subjects such as trauma, history and mourning provides the opportunity to reconsider Woolf`s political-aesthetic stance in literary criticism.