Multipotential mesenchyman stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into the neural cells in vitro and they have been shown to promote neuronal survival and functional recovery after implantation into various neurological disease models such as cerebral infarction, brain trauma, spinal cord injury and Parkinson disease. In this study, we examined the effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) on spinal cord injury (SCI) model saccording to the transplantation site through functional recovery test, cavity volume and migration to injury site. The spinal cord was injured by contusion using a weight-drop at the level of T9. The seven days after injury, the hUCB-MSCs (5 × 105 cells/?l) labeled with PKH26 were transplanted into rostral, caudal, epicenter sites of SCI. The results were: (1) a behavioral test (BBB score) showed a significant functional improvement in groups that had transplanted MSCs into rostral site as compared to transplanted group into caudal or epicenter site, (2) the cavity volume was the smallest in MSCs transplanted groups into rostral site, and (3) PKH26-labeled cells observed around the injury site were a greater in MSCs transplanted group into rostral site than other groups. Taken together, rostral site would be a valuable when performing stem cell transplantation therapy for treating SCI.