The bone morphogenic proteins(BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the TGF-β superfamily. Among BMPs, BMP-2 is known as the most effective cytokine. The present study evaluated effects of anorganic bovine bone graft material coated with synthetic peptide which corresponds to residues 73-92 of the knuckle epitope of hBMP-2 on bone formation in rabbit calvarial defects. The residues 73-92 of hBMP-2 was absorbed on anorganic bone mineral(ABM) by incubating ABM for 24 hrs. The rabbit calvarial defects were not filled at all(control group), and were filled ABM only(ABM group), ABM with residues 73-92 derived from hBMP- 2(ABM/hBMP-2P group) and ABM combined with hBMP-2(ABM/rhBMP-2 group). The groups were evaluated using histologic observation and histomorphometrc analysis at 4 and 8 weeks after healing. The higher osteoconductivity of the ABM/hBMP-2P and ABM/rhBMP-2 groups than the control and ABM only groups. Compared to the control group at 4 weeks after healing, the defects grafted with ABM/hBMP-2P and ABM/rhBMP-2 showed more active bone formation with a statistical significance(p<0.05). And ABM/hBMP-2P and ABM/rhBMP-2 showed a higher percentage bone length from the defect margins than control and ABM only groups at 4 weeks of healing with a statistical significance(p<0.05). ABM/hBMP-2P and ABM/rhBMP-2 may involve mainly initial bone healing and residues 73-92 of hBMP-2 could attribute to new bone formation. Based on the results of this study, anorganic bovine bone maybe a good carrier for peptide and anorganic bovine combined with residues 73-92 of hBMP-2 can increase the new bone formation in early stage in rabbit calvaria.