Most laryngeal procedures for laryngeal cancer cause vocal fold atrophy and fibrosis, which results in the dysphonia. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells(AMSCs) have the potential for multi-lineage differentiation and are easy to isolate. To control the growth and differentiation of stem cells, several growth factors are needed. Some studies have reported that hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) reduces fibrosis in wound healing process. We investigated the effect of AMSCs, given alone or together with HGF, on vocal fold regeneration and fibrosis. AMSCs were isolated and cultured from the ten rabbits. Both sides of the vocal folds were injured by electrocauterization. AMSCs were given to one of the injured vocal folds with hyaluronic acid. In five of ten rabbits, hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) was injected together with the AMSCs. At the other side of the vocal fold in all rabbits, hyaluronic acid was injected. After 8 weeks, laryngoscopic and histological examination showed that the vocal folds injected only with hyaluronic acid became atrophic; however, the vocal folds injected with AMSCs did not demonstrate atrophy. The addition of HGF did not decrease the degree of fibrosis. We concluded that AMSCs can be used to prevent vocal fold atrophy after laryngeal surgery.