Recently it has been proven that population of stem cells obtained from stromal vascular fraction of fat tissue have the multilineage potential which is a capability of differentiation into bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. In addition, a surgeon can easily harvest human adipose tissue using by minimal invasive technique such as a liposuction. In this article, I hypothesized that human adipose tissue contains the stem cells and has an capability of chondrogenic differentiation in alginate sponge scaffolds. Alginate sponge scaffolds were made by lyophilizing of alginate throughout alginate gel state and human adipose tissue was obtained from a liposuction. In experimental group, human adipose-derived stem cells in alginate sponge scaffolds, were differentiated with chondrogenic medium consisted of transforming growth factor-β1 and dexamethasone. Control group was defined as a culture with complete medium. After differentiation at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, gene expression was examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) for collagen type II and link. In addition, content of glycosaminoglycan and Alcian blue stain were carried out for confirming of chondrogenesis. RT-PCR results show gene encodings of collagen type II and link in experimental group. The content of glycosaminoglycan in experimental group was greater than that in control group. In Alcian blue stain, sulfated proteoglycan was stained with blue color in experimental group. Consequently it was proven that adipose-derived stem cells have a capability of chondrogenic differentiation in alginate sponge scaffolds. In a view point of cell therapy, tissue engineering of adipose-derived stem cells is able to apply for reconstruction of tissue defects, congenital, and esthetics.