More and more children are becoming obese and overweight due to several factors that include a high energy density in the diet (a high fat intake) and low energy expenditure. Consequently childhood obesity is becoming a significant health problem. Fat tissue releases many cytokines such as resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α, leptin, interleukin-6. These adipocytokines induce obesity-related insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a key component of obesity-related metabolic problems such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, acanthosis nigricans and polycystic ovarian syndrome. This review article focused on insulin resistance and its related metabolic diseases.