As part of ongoing study focused on the discovery of natural antioxidants from Korean plants by measuring the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect and superoxide quenching activity, ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) was found to show potent antioxidant activities. Subsequent activity-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract led to the isolation of two phenolic compounds, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and gallic acid (2), as antioxidant compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic studies. Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time from this plant. These compounds showed the significant antioxidative effects during the DPPH free radical scavenging test, and the riboflavin- and xanthine-originated superoxide quenching activity tests.