이 논문은 아동 중심적인 자유주의 철학자로 알려진 존 듀이가 그의 교육 사상에서 교사의 권위와 역할 역시 존중하였음을 밝히는 것을 목적으로 한다. 이 목적을 성취하기 위해 먼저 듀이가 그의 생애동안 지속적으로 반대해온 이원론(Dualism)과 이 이원론이 야기한 교육 문제를 그의 저서들을 통해 살펴봄으로 서 그의 교육이론이 어느 한쪽으로 치우치지 아니하는, 즉 아동만을 중시하는 교육이 아니라는 토대를 마련하고자 한다. 이어서 자유와 권위 문제에 대한 듀이의 철학적 분석, 특히 자유라는 명목 하에 모든 형태의 권위를 거부하는 고전적 자유주의 철학(Classical Philosophy of Liberalism)에 대한 그의 비판을 논의한다. 이러한 고전적 자유주의가 가져온 위기와 문제점을 극복하기 위해 듀이는 새로운 형태의 자유주의 철학의 필요성을 역설하였고, 이것은 그가 바로 민주주의 사회에 적합한 권위 개념을 정립하고자 하였음을 보여준다. 더 나아가 본 연구는 듀이가 이해한 학교에서의 바람직한 권위를 논의하는 동시에 교사의 위치와 역할에 대한 그의 생각을 검토하며, 권위 개념에 대한 듀이의 교육철학이 오늘날의 한국교육에 어떠한 시사점을 줄 수 있는지 제의한다.
The purpose of this study is to interpret Dewey`s philosophy of education from the teacher-centered point of view, especially through analyzing his concept of authority. Throughout his intellectual life, Dewey consciously sought to overcome dualism, which had previously characterized Western philosophy. According to him, the dualistic habit of thinking, regarding two concepts as independent and mutually exclusive realities, neglects the connections and relationships of two principles, which are more important, encouraging, and solidifying aspects. And it thus becomes a source of not only intellectual confusion but also misguided conduct. Dewey was keenly aware of the problem in the relationship between authority and freedom and attempted to reconcile these two important principles. Specifically, while criticizing the classical philosophy of liberalism that challenged any form of authority under the name of freedom, Dewey was looking for a new type of authority that is compatible with a democratic society. Dewey made it clear that a return to an external form of authority would not succeed to solve the problem between authority and freedom. Instead, he placed authority in the method of organized intelligence as exemplified in the area of science. Representing a remarkable union of freedom and authority, the operation of organized intelligence displayed in science became a model for Dewey for the kind of freedom and authority necessary in social affairs. Consistent with his philosophical writings on authority, Dewey put collective intelligence of a classroom or school community as a whole in the place of a new educational authority. According to Dewey, effective educational authority is to be exercised in a social context, in which individuals are involved to contribute and participate in its common activities and understandings. In this way, the principle of social control (or authority) does not necessarily restrict the principle of personal freedom. Dewey is, however, fully aware that there are occasions upon which teachers have to intervene and exercise their personal authority over students. When such a situation occurs, it is, for Dewey, the right and responsibility of the teachers to use their personal authority according to the principles of justice and equality for the good of the whole. Dewey further discusses that teachers, through the medium of more advanced and intelligent lesson planning, play a vital role in terms of enhancing their educational authority by effectively incorporating individual efforts with collective control. Although it appears that teachers in Dewey`s educational theory do not have a clear-cut authority, they are the ones who have real power in directing educational environment that will lead to the positive growth of children. Indeed, they have a difficult and daunting task to guide children not only to have a more educative experience but to become a more effective member of the community. The educational philosophy of Dewey is thus teacher-centered as equally as it is child-centered.