This study was performed to investigate the degree of long-term pollution at the mainstream of the Han River by comparing the concentration of BOD and COD from 1975 to 2011. The long-term annual average BOD and COD concentration at the mainstream of the Han River showed an increasing trend as it flowed downstream from Paldang Dam to Gayang. The concentration of BOD (r2=0.646) and COD (r2=0.260) showed a consistent decreasing trend for 37 years. In the case of Paldang Dam, BOD has maintained a decreasing trend, whereas the COD value showed an increasing trend after the 1990s. Therefore, a control of non-biodegradable materials in areas around Paldang Dam is required. The result of the seasonal variations of BOD and COD is as follows: spring¤winter¤summer and fall (p□0.001). The time series analysis revealed a strong correlation for every 12-month period. Also, the amount of water discharge at Paldang Dam has to be systematically controlled because the amount of water discharge from the dam influences the water quality at the mainstream of the Han River.