미국(米國)의 대일점령정책(對日占領政策)과 재일한인(在日韓人)의 경제적권리(經濟的權利)
분야
사회과학 > 정치/외교학
저자
김태웅 ( Tae Ki Kim )
발행기관
한일민족문제학회
간행물정보
한일민족문제연구 2012년, 제23권 259~304페이지(총46페이지)
파일형식
0h900268.pdf [무료 PDF 뷰어 다운로드]
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    국문초록
    この硏究は(1)米國政府の解放後在日韓人に對する保護および生活に 關する經濟政策,(2)SCAPの在日韓人の經濟的な權利(持參金,雇用,特別配 給,生活保護法,財産稅など)に對する政策について考察した。 米國政府の在日韓人經濟政策において,日本の植民地支配の犧牲者と しての在日韓人に對する經濟的配慮を見つけることができない。米國 政府の政策的な立場が明確であったならば,在日韓人の經濟的な權利に 對するSCAPの態度も變わったはずである。しかし,米國政府の在日韓人 に對する經濟政策は在日韓人に決して友好的なものではなかった。 結局,SCAPが在日韓人を經濟的にどのように認識したかということが 重要であるが,最も重要な단當部局であるESSの단當者は,在日韓人の植 民地支配からの解放がどのような意味を持っていたのか理解しようと しなかった。むしろ在日韓人は日本の侵略戰爭に積極的に協力し,富を 蓄積したという認識を持っていたし,在日韓人は植民地支配の犧牲者で はなく,日本人と同じ侵略者であり,解放された後,自分たちの立場を急 に變えた裏切り者と見なした。解放初期の無秩序な狀況の中で,敗戰に 失望に陷っている日本人とは對照的に解放を喜んで,日本社會から解放 された民族として,自由に行動し,場合によっては,日本の公權力さえ無 視する在日韓人をSCAPは否定的に見ていた。SCAPに在日韓人は日本經濟にとって負단になる存在であり,經濟的に 特に配慮する價値のない存在であった。在日韓人という解放民族が長 い間日本の植民地支配を受けてきた被害者であるという認識と政策が 彼らに完全に欠けていたため,SCAPは現實的な立場のみに立って,日本 を統治する支配者,すなわち日本政府を代弁する統治者の立場から在日 韓人問題を見,經濟的な權利についてもそのような立場で對處した。彼 らの政策のの基準は日本の政治,經濟,社會秩序の維持であり,反共とい う政策であった。 これらのSCAPの方針が反映されて,在日韓人の持參金は制限され,雇 用は差別され,特別配給も受けられなかった。生活保護法も限られた 人□のみ對象となり,財産稅を納付しなければならなかった。結局,在日 韓人の生活は改善されず,日本社會の中で安定した生計手段を見つける ことができなかった。結局多くの在日韓人は生計のため占領後も違法 な商行爲をした。日本政府はこれを彈壓し,在日韓人はこれに抵抗し た。
    영문초록
    This paper is to review (1) the U.S. government`s basic recognition and policy about the economical problems of Koreans in Japan after World War Ⅱ and (2) SCAP(General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers)`s policies concerning the economical rights(Property Individuals to carry on Living Japan, Employment Supplementary, Ration, Livelihood Protection Law, Capital Levy etc.)of Koreans in Japan during Occupation Period. First of all, the policies of U.S government over economical problems of Koreans in Japan was limited to only in basic protection and support. In addition, there were no consideration of economical rights of Koreans in Japan who were liberalized after Japan`s colonization. U.S. government`s economical policy to Koreans in Japan was not amicable at all to Koreans in Japan. If U.S. government had ordered specific direct on the employment and public assistance toward Koreans in Japan, SCAP would have handled economical rights of Koreans in Japan based on U.S. government`s keynote. Based on no specific direct, SCAP in the end, decided economical rights of Koreans in Japan based on their own judgement. After all, how SCAP perceive Koreans in Japan and economical rights of Koreans in Japan became important. Related to economical rights of Koreans in Japan, the most profound Section ESS(Economic and Scientific Section), never tried to understand the existence of Koreans in Japan who were liberated from colonization of Japan. Rather, they had a prejudice that Koreans in Japan positively cooperated Japan`s invading war and accumulated wealth, that they were not the victim of colonization, that they were the same invader as Japan, and regarded them as apostates who changed their footings post liberation. SCAP looked negatively at Koreans in Japan who were congratulating the liberation and who, as a independent nation, acted freely, at times ignoring the government power of Japan in contrast to Japanese who were bitterly disappointed at defeat in the chaos of early days of liberation. They saw that Koreans in Japan accumulated great wealth by commercial transaction illegally during the economical disorder after defeat of Japan. As a result SCAP regarded that Koreans in Japan was a burden to Japan economy and had no need to specially consider them. This perception actively speaks for Japan government. SCAP had a distorted understanding of historical background of Koreans in Japan`s existence and realistic situation that Koreans in Japan are in. They looked at the economical problem of Koreans in Japan in the standpoint of governor as substitute of Japanese government. Their basis of policy was the maintenance of politic, economy, social order and anti-Communism of Japan. As a reflection of this policy of SCAP, Koreans in Japan`s property individuals to carry on living Japan was limited, employee discrimination to them was not solved. And they could not get supplementary ration and livelihood protection was limited to only some of Koreans in Japan. Further more, they had to pay a property tax. The poverty life of Koreans in Japan did not get any better, they could not find stable means of making a living in Japan society. As a result, Koreans in Japan continued illegal commercial transaction. Japanese government oppressed it and Koreans in Japan resisted.
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