Background: Differentiating cardiogenic pulmonary edema from other bilateral lung diseases such as pneumonia is frequently difficult. We conducted a retrospective study to identify predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema and non-cardiogenic causes of bilateral lung infiltrates in chest radiographs. Methods: The study included patients who had newly developed bilateral lung infiltrates in chest radiographs and patients who underwent echocardiography. Cases were divided into two groups based on the echocardiographic findings: the cardiogenic pulmonary edema group and the non-cardiogenic group. Clinical characteristics and basic laboratory findings were analyzed to identify predictors for differential diagnosis between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of bilateral chest infiltrates. Results: We analyzed 110 subjects. Predictors of cardiogenic pulmonary edema were higher brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, lower C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on the day of the event (＜7 mg/dL), age over 60 years, history of heart disease, and absence of fever and sputum. CRP on the day of the event was an independent factor to differentiate cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of newly developed bilateral chest infiltrates. Also, the validity was comparable to BNP. Conclusion: Clinical symptoms (sputum and fever), medical history (dyslipidemia and heart disease), and laboratory findings (BNP and CRP) could be helpful in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute bilateral lung infiltrates in chest radiographs.