Bone marrow stromal cells(BMSCs) exhibit multiple traits of a stem cell population, and they can expand many times in vitro and be induced to differentiate into multiple cell types. Keratin is the major structural fibrous protein providing outer covering such as wool, hair, and nail. We think keratins are useful as natural biomaterial. We examined the effect of Keratin/PLGA scaffold on the neural differentiation of rat BMSCs. We developed the keratin loaded poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA) scaffolds. Keratin/PLGA 0, 20 and 50 wt% scaffolds were prepared by solvent casting/salt leaching method. BMSCs were harvested from the femurs of adult female Fischer rat. These cells were seeded in prepared Keratin/PLGA scaffold and cultured in Medium 50 ml DMEM, 2 %DMSO, 200 ?M BHA, 25 ?M valproic acid, 10 ?M forskolin, 1 ?M hydro-cotisone, 5?g/ml insulin for 5 day. The effect of Keratin/PLGA scaffold on the neural differentiation of rat BMSCs were assessed in culture using the MTT assay and RT-PCR was conducted to confirm mRNA expression of NSE and Nf for neural marker. We confirmed that effect of Keratin/PLGA scaffold on the neural differentiation of rat BMSCs. According to our results, 20 wt% keratin/ PLGA scaffold have good cell compatibility and the expression of neural markers was higher. In conclusion, Keratin/ PLGA scaffold, on which neural differentiation of rat BMSCs was possible.