Natural polymers and extracellular matrix materials have various advantages as cell culture systems and are widely used as scaffolds for tissue engineering and in regenerative medicine. These materials show excellent biocompatibility and safety due to their biological characteristics, which include biodegradability and weak antigenicity. Therefore, these materials have been used for tissue engineering including synthesis of artificial skin, bone, cartilage, vessels, and cornea, and as substrates in cell culture and delivery. Biological matrices such as acellular dermis, amniotic membrane, and small intestine submucosa have been employed in numerous wound-healing applications. The safety and efficacy of biological matrices have been demonstrated in preclinical animal studies and in clinical work when used for bone, tendon, ligament, vessel, urinary organ, and skin regeneration. This article discusses commercially available natural polymers and extracellular matrices and their use in research and clinical applications.