Tissue-engineered osteochondral composites were developed using multipotent periosteum-derived progenitor cells(PDPCs) with different scaffolds. After respective differentiation of PDPCs into cartilage and bone tissues in atelocollagen gel and calcium phosphate scaffolds for four weeks, the two tissues were sutured together and cultured for one more week. Immunophenotypes, quantitative RT-PCR, and histological analysis were performed for the evaluation of multipotency of PDPCs. PDPCs were successfully differentiated into chondrocytes and osteocytes in different scaffolds. Also, we confirmed that theses tissue-engineered osteochondral composites were adherent well with each other. Moreover, tissue-engineered tissues were similar with natural ones. Therefore, PDPCs were useful alternative cell sources for the generation of tissue-engineered osteochondral tissues and they could be used for the treatment of full-thickness defected cartilage in the future.