In this paper, I attempt to clarify in what way Leibniz`s understanding of Chinese culture and his theoretical and practical interest in China are expressed in his main writings on China, and in particular to bring to light how his own philosophical thinking and that interest are reflected in his interpretation of Chinese philosophy. I don`t make it the central task of this paper to scrutinize how plausible his interpretation is, but I rather focus on presenting and explaining it in connection with his philosophy. Leibniz`s Novissima Sinica and Discourse on the Natural Theology of the Chinese are his two main writings on China which inform us of his point of view and theoretical position in respect of Chinese culture and philosophy. He regards Chinese civilization as high-developed and hopes the two civilizations, Chinese and European, will exchange their cultural achievements more vividly and extensively, so that they serve each other in making further progress. While he believes the China mission is important for this purpose and he plays a role in that mission, his interpretation of Chinese philosophy shows that he thinks it is basically compatible with Christianity. Although his interpretation and plan concerning Chinese civilization was in his time not fully appreciated and influential, it is worthwhile to examine this interpretation and plan, because his fundamental ideas in it are so fruitful and balanced as to be instructive to us today as regards cultural exchanges between East and West.