A Nodulisporium sp. (Hypoxylon sp.) has been isolated as an endophyte of Thelypteris angustifolia (Broadleaf Leaf Maiden Fern) in a rainforest region of Central America. It has been identified both on the basis of its morphological characteristics and by scanning electron microscopy as well as ITS sequence analysis. The endophyte produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have both fuel (mycodiesel) and use for biological control of plant disease. When grown on potato dextrose agar, the organism uniquely produces a series of ketones, including acetone; 2-pentanone; 3-hexanone, 4-methyl; 3-hexanone, 2,4- dimethyl; 2-hexanone, 4-methyl, and 5-hepten, 2-one and these account for about 25% of the total VOCs. The most abundant identified VOC was 1,8 cineole, which is commonly detected in this group of organisms. Other prominent VOCs produced by this endophyte include 1-butanol, 2- methyl, and phenylethanol alcohol. Moreover, of interest was the presence of cyclohexane, propyl, which is a common ingredient of diesel fuel. Furthermore, the VOCs of this isolate of Nodulisporium sp. were selectively active against a number of plant pathogens, and upon a 24 h exposure caused death to Phytophthora palmivora, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and 100% inhibition to Phytophthora cinnamomi with only slight to no inhibition of the other pathogens that were tested. From this work, it is becoming increasingly apparent that each isolate of this endophytic Nodulisporium spp., including the Daldina sp. and Hypoxylon spp. teleomorphs, seems to produce its own unique set of VOCs.