영국 근대 화학공학의 탄생과 성장, 1870년대∼1920년대
분야
인문과학 > 동양사
저자
이내주 ( Nae Joo Lee )
발행기관
수선사학회
간행물정보
사림(성대사림) 2012년, 제43권 35~63페이지(총29페이지)
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    The purpose of this article is to survey the early history of chemical engineering in Britain in terms of how and why chemical engineering emerged as an independent modern profession and how chemical engineering settled in the higher education level as an independent discipline from the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. The article also deals with its relation with chemistry and the influence of industrial demand on its growth. For the fulfillment of the purpose, the position of chemical engineering in public discourse at Imperial College is discussed, together with the process of the creation of the Institution of Chemical Engineers in 1922. In short, it is some kind of introductory work to investigate the early historical process of professionalization and academization in the field of chemical engineering in Britain. The general use of the term chemical engineering in Britain grew out of the increasing mechanization of the chemical industry during the third quarter of the 19th century. The use of the steam engine, of rotary furnaces, and of compressors required the presence of someone with mechanical engineering competence. However, at that time, the title chemical engineer was not very common. The most notable enthusiast for the title was George E. Davis(1850-1907), who took over as Secretary during the preliminary meetings of the Society of Chemical Industry around 1880. He was esteemed as the father of chemical engineers at least in Britain. He wrote the first textbook on chemical engineering. In the book published in 1901, Handbook of Chemical Engineering, Davis explained on the unifying idea of ``unit operation``. Another important figure in the early history of chemical engineering in Britain was J. W. Hinchley(1871-1931). In 1909 Hinchley had begun the course in chemical engineering at Battersea Polytechnic and since then was to be extremely active for the institutionalization and academization of chemical engineering at higher education level in Britain. Under the favorable circumstances which had been made by the experiences of the First World War, he eagerly tried to establish an independent organization of chemical engineers and finally succeeded to found the Institution of Chemical Engineers in 1922. He, firstly as a part-time lecturer in 1912 and lastly as the appointed professor in 1926, also made a key role to overcome lots of difficulties at Imperial College occurring in the process of the establishment of the new curriculum and department of chemical engineering. Why was Britain so slow in professionalizing and academizing the field of chemical engineering even though she was the first starter? For Britain there was little co-relationship among the related interest groups and above all the lack of the government role as a supporter exclusive of the war-time period. As mentioned above, the ready-established professional organizations did not like or consistently interrupted the emergence of new profession. As a result, in Britain the field of chemical engineering had been developed through the devotional efforts of small group of individuals such as Davis and Hinchley. On the other sense it might reflect the traditional character of the British society which emphasized the importance of individualism rather than collectivism.
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