역사,민속 : 동명(東明)(T`umen) 루트: 몽,한 「활겨레」(Qalqa obog,궁족(弓族)) 분족고(分族考)
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인문과학 > 동양사
저자
주채혁 ( Chu Chae Hyok )
발행기관
한국몽골학회
간행물정보
몽골학 2013년, 제34권 1~47페이지(총47페이지)
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    The original names of Ancient Chosun and Koguryo are Chosun and Koryo. Koguryo people themselves called their own country Koryo, not Koguryo. Chosun can be seen as a name which came out of the combination of two outsiders names Cho-tribe and Soyon-tribe. Cho 「朝」implies 朝鹿(Chaa bog)-馴鹿(reindeer) and Sun 「鮮」 signifies 小山(Sopka), where 蘚(Niokq) the moss, the main food of reindeer grows. This 小山or 「鮮」are distributed, mainly following the Mongolian route, in the Eurasian or North-American Taiga or Tundra areas. So we have named, in our own way, this reindeer nomads` migration route 「Lichen Road(鮮의 蘚路-‘Ni,ukinii jam’: the moss road」. On the other hand, 槁離(Qori) and 鄂倫(Orun) signify, together with the Gungye(弓裔; 鐵原弓氏), Gung obog(弓族) “a bow tribe” in the same sense as ``Qalqa`` of Qalqa Mongolian. We came to this conclusion after a long fieldwork in the Qalqyn Gol area around the year of 2000, integrating into it the view of B. Sumiyabaatar who called the original birthplace of Koguryo was Qalqyn Gol(紇升骨: 忽本) in his presentation in the middle of 1970ies. Especially seeing also the fact that in the case of talking about this root in Tibetan, Mongol is referred to as ``Khor Mongol``, where ``Khor`` means [hwar-a quiver], [Kharkha] of Kharkha Mongol used in talking about this root of Mongol should certainly be ``hwar``, and seeing the use of Harha obok (Qalqa obog) in ‘Qori’- the Harha tribe should be “a bow tribe”[弓族]. The Dongmyong(東明) legend reflects the embrio history common to Mongolian and Korean and is a trial to present the theory of split of a ``bow- tribe`` into Mongolian and Korean. Thus this can also be called a hypothesis, which came out of reconstruction of reindeer-riding, reindeer herding nomadism, a period of nearly 10,000 years before the steppe has entered the stage of horse-riding, sheep herding nomadism. Of course, the problem of the split of Qalqa(弓)tribe into Mongolian and Korean tribes. 「蒙·韓弓(Qalqa)族分族論」is proposed on the basis that has already been implied in connection with the history of grafting on ‘the early stage North babarian(北狄)’ Schythian vanguard iron-making technology, and converting it to the names ‘the North barbarian (北夷)’ 『論衡』 「吉驗編」, Qori )and ‘the East barbarian(東夷).’ They combined the Schythian iron-making technology in 6~5 century B.C, and advanced as far as the Mongolian steppe, and changing from reindeer-riding, reindeer herding nomadism to horse-riding sheep herding nomadism, thus acquiring in the same time the most advanced horse-riding-shooting 「騎馬射術」and becoming fearful archer group (弓士集團), the Qori(槁離or 高麗) tribe -Qalqa tribe(弓族) grew into the leading groups of reindeer herding nomads. And they appeared at the background of Tundra and forested Tundra, vast and limitless bases of reindeer herding nomadism making so far existing nomadic-agricultural empire impossible to exist. This became the foundation of the reindeer herding nomadism of Orianqai-Qorianqai-Qori(弓)tribe. Therefore seen from the point of view of the existing nomadic -agricultural empire, it was a direction to become a Qorci-Orunchun Group reindeer herding nomadism using a bow of Oranqai-``Qori``, which was impossible for them to become skillful in. It can be reasoned that this very reindeer herding nomadism 「Qori(弓)tribe-Chaabogtang(馴鹿遊牧民)」 which the Oranqai(Oranke)- Qori(弓)tribes were practising was to become Qorci(弓士: 箭筒士-Харваач)=Orunchun=Oranqai`s Chaabog that is ‘Orun bog``. The reason why, in Olkhon Island of Lake Baikal, one centre of Siberia, an altar for Burqan-worship ceremony (不咸祭天壇) where the legend of the birth of Qori tribe founder is located, is transmitted and handed down together with the legend, will be found right here. They, combined with the Schythian iron-making technology and becoming fearful archery military group(弓士戰力集團), advanced to the steppe, secured the most advanced nomadic military power called horse-riding archery. Uniting in this way the wide nomadic area called Hulunbuir Mongol steppe, and bringing under their rule the gigantic nomadic-agricultural area called Nun(嫩) River Plain, social diversification ocurring vehemently, the Ancient nomadic empire was born. This fact has already been recognized in general. So there will be no chance of doubting the fact that the womb, which gave birth to all the Ancient nomadic empires in North-East Asia, whether they were Qori, or Puyo, Hyungno, Koguryo, Torgwor, or Sonbi, was the Hulunbuir Mongol steppe-Nun River Plain. Neither Qori(槁離)- Mekkori(貊高麗: Mongol) - nor Koguryo can, of course, be exceptions. The birth-legend of Qori tribe founder was born and transmitted down with such historical backgrounds, and the same is suggested as the historical substance of Dongmyongsongwang(東明聖王) legend. Actually going south from Kkon River(根河), the inferred territory of Qori country, crossing the Imin River, which can be corrected as Omritaisu(奄利大水), after entering the Qalqyn Gol(忽本江=渾江: 弓江) natural fortress and founding the Koguryo Empire=``Qor`s empire (弓帝國)’-Goolikhan ulus, this process is contained in Dongmyongsongwang legend. It is therefore our conclusion that the historical substance of Dongmyongsongwang legend will be recording in the end the course of development from “reindeer-riding, reindeer herding nomadism → horse-riding, sheep herding nomadism” of 「Qalqa obog」- ‘Qori(弓)-tribe’. Our opinion is that this legend, therefore, reflects the historical process of development of Qalqa Empire(弓帝國): thus from reindeer-riding, reindeer herding nomadism of reindeer herding nomadic empire Ancient Chosun to→he transition period developing from reindeer herding nomadism to sheep herding nomadism of nomadic Puyo(夫餘)→and finally to the foundation of horse-riding sheep herding nomadic empire of Koguryo. Indeed, in this way, from Kkon River(根河)=reindeer herding nomadic area = Qori-country(槁離國), crossing Imin River(大水) -Omritaisu (奄利大水), among the Qorci(弓士: 箭筒士-Харваач), who came out fleeing from own country, the most out-standing marksmen(名弓手)- T`umen(朱蒙) was Qorbon(忽本or 卒本), entering the Qalqyn Gol(紇升骨) Mongol steppe, cultivating a large scale rice farm around Buir Lake, from the gigantic natural fortress, starting from the horse-riding sheep herding nomadism, came out to the Mongol steppe with vanguard horse-riding archery(騎馬射術), founded the Koguryo empire with great success, and actually it should be said that the Damul(多勿)-‘Эргэн’[되돌아와 되물림] legend appeared from the process of tracing back the old territory called Kkon River of Qori country. Not only that but we dare try to visualize the migration of Koguryo: thus Elbenku(貊)Qori(高麗)→Gom(半月熊: semilunar bear )Qori: 高句麗, in analogy River(渾江)-Onyosanseoung(五女山城) -Burqan (不咸) Mountain [All in Henti and Baekdu Mountain]. Of course, in Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean Zone the water is so cold that though a bear can live, but tigers cannot live. Indeed the place a bear, which symbolizes the advanced reindeer herding nomads, can meet a tiger, which symbolizes the hunters, is Hulunbuir where a tiger can live, that is, we dare mention, Qalqyn Gol Zone(忽本圈). They can also carry their stage of activities as such and have migrated to the Hon-River area. This is because of the primitive essence of nomadic nature carried by the Chosun-Koguryo embrio-history. But the main stream of the time-old reindeer nomadism, which is mainly practised in the North-Eurasian Tundra and forested Tundra, came down the northern Great and Small Hunganryong area, where to a certain extent such matching ecological environments are preserved, and will continue on to the Baekdu Daegan, centering in the Eastern fringes of Yotaek(遼澤). After this, horse-riding sheep herding nomadic ecological environments are the steppes which is the chilly highland dry area. Before that ecological environments for primitive nomadism otherwise was, with different ecological environments from each other, chilly highlands and low marshy lands, the main stream of reindeer nomadism was succeeded naturally on the Ancient Chosun and Ko(gu)ryo side. [The English translation of this paper was made by Professor Dr. Kiyoshi SHIMIZU(淸水紀佳)]
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