The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new xenograft material Ti-Oss (Chiyewon, Guri, Korea) by investigating the degree of new bone formation compared with that of other commonly used xenografts Bio-Oss(R)(Geistlich Pharma AG, Wolhusen, Switzerland) and OCS-B(R)(NIBEC, Seoul, Korea). Forty rats were used in the study. The animals were randomly allocated into four groups of 10 animals each. The Group 1`s calvarial defect was untreated, Group 2`s defect was filled with Bio-Oss(R)(Geistlich Pharma AG), Group 3`s defect was filled with OCS-B(R)(NIBEC), and Group 4`s defect was filled with Ti-Oss(R)(Chiyewon). The animals were sacrificed at 2 (n=5) and 8 (n=5) weeks for histomorphometric analysis. The histomorphometric analysis showed the statistically significant difference between the groups with a mean bone formation of 0.35±0.10 mm (8.75%) for Bio-Oss(R) group, 0.19±0.04 mm (4.75%) for OCS-B(R) group, 0.26±0.04 mm (6.5%) for Ti-Oss(R) group at 2 week healing period. At 8 weeks, a mean bone formation of 1.93±0.18 mm (48.25%) for Bio-Oss(R) group, 1.12±0.11 mm (28%) for OCS-B(R) group, 1.50±0.28 mm (37.5%) for Ti-Oss(R) group showed the statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). Within the limits of present study, it was concluded that the newly investigated xenograft, Ti-Oss(R), revealed biocompatibility and effectiveness in bone formation. Ti-Oss(R) could be proposed as a potential material for filling osseous defects. Further clinical trials of the new bovine xenograft Ti-Oss(R) are needed for an understanding its relevance in dentistry.