특집 : 이동하는 불화; 조선 후기 불화의 의례적 기능
분야
예체능 > 미술
저자
정명희 ( Jeong Myoung Hee )
발행기관
미술사와 시각문화학회
간행물정보
미술사와 시각문화 2011년, 제10권 100~141페이지(총42페이지)
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    국문초록
    같은 도상(圖像)의 불화도 어떤 공간에 걸려 어떤 의식에 사용되었는가에 따라 다른 기능을 지니는 현상에 착안하여 봉안 공간과 의식(儀式)의 관점에서 불화의 역할을 살펴보았다. 조선 후기 사찰의 주전각은 예배 공간으로서 뿐 아니라 의식 수행에 있어 다각적인 역할을 수행하였다. 불화 역시 의식 존상의 현존(現存)을 나타내는 매체로 적극적으로 사용되었고, 의식의 규모가 확장되어 중정(中庭)으로 확대된 경우 불화 역시 야외로 이동하였다. 의식이 기대하는 총체적인 목적에 있어 불화가 수행한 중심적인 기능을 고찰하는 것이 본 연구의 목적이다.
    영문초록
    Iconography is one of the main methodologies in the studies of Buddhist painting, since the visualization of the objects of worship is one of the fundamental functions of religious art. However, religious rituals have continued even in front of incorrect icons and devotional practices have been made even without knowledge of the exact Buddhist doctrines. Identical iconic paintings could be perceived differently according to where each of them is hung and how each is used. This is the very point where the necessity arises for understanding how the visualized object of worship is perceived rather than how the object of worship is visualized. Thus, the space and furnishings for the enshrinement of icons, and the ritual and devotional ceremony held in front of the icons provide a clue to understanding the perception of Buddhist artifacts. Buddhist paintings were actively produced in the late Joseon period to meet the religious demands caused by the popularity of Buddhist rituals among the general populace. As Joseon Buddhism lost national support that Goryeo Buddhism enjoyed and was increasingly challenged by Confucian ceremonial practices, the nature of patronage changed. The architectural structure of the entire monastery was also modified for the sake of easy performance of rituals instead of creating a special space for them. The central courtyard in front of the main hall was the primary stage for Buddhist rites. As the ritual function of Buddhist art became more and more emphasized, Buddhist paintings took an active part in ceremonies as a principal focus in addition to symbolizing the object of worship or representing the realms of various Buddhas. Focusing on the formal characteristics of Joseon Buddhist painting after the seventeenth century, this article explores the ritual function of Buddhist painting in both interior and exterior settings of monastic buildings. During the Joseon dynasty, there were some instances of Buddhist mural paintings, but the majority was in a scroll format. This was a response to the situation that required the construction of an exterior altar to perform rituals. Even though the scroll painting was a traditional format from antiquity, it was preferred for Buddhist painting in the late Joseon period due to the characteristic of its mobility. In addition to the specific ritual place, the ritual altar could be arranged in any place by setting up a platform and hanging a Buddhist painting suitable for the rite. Buddhist paintings enshrined in monastic halls were considered both static images hung on the interior walls and icons symbolizing the object of worship. However, the main hall of the Joseon Buddhist monastery was a very dynamic space. No specific ritual altar was set up inside the hall, but the ``Three Altars (Samdan),`` which had been used for outdoor rites such as the Water-Land Ritual (Suryukjae) and the Ritual for Preparatory Cultivation (Yesujae), were moved into the hall. Paintings related to Buddhist rituals such as Bodhisattvas of the Three Worlds (Samjang bosal-do), Bodhisattva of Earth Treasury [Ksitigarbha] (Jijang bosal-do), and Nectar Ritual paintings (Gamno-do) were displayed in the hall. These paintings were hung on the ``Three Altars`` that were brought into the hall and played an active role in personal funerary rites. The altarpiece of the Upper Altar (Sangdan) in the indoor altar was moved to the outdoor altar set up in the courtyard. Later, paintings hung exclusively for the outdoor rites were produced instead of moving the indoor paintings for the outdoor rituals. The emergence of large Buddhist paintings for rituals (gwaebul) is an interesting phenomenon caused by the emphasis on the ritual function of Buddhist painting and is thought to have been derived from the function of the previous massive icons for rituals. It is important to note that the purpose of ritual paintings is to make the devotees evoke the presence of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, as if the deities were present in front of their eyes. The liturgical session where Buddhas were invited to the altar space was particularly important in the ritual structure and procedure of Joseon Buddhism. Subsidiary devices such as other ritual procedures, ritual chanting and dancing, and ritual manuals all served to create this effect. The realization of the presence of Buddhas and bodhisattvas came to be attained in personal ritual practices through the worshipper`s concentration on the icons. Meditational visualization was achieved in the collective ritual space. The presence of Buddhas and bodhisattvas who have descended from heaven is symbolized in the ceremonial event of the Invocation of Buddhas (Geobul), where each name of the invited deities is recited. Furthermore, the invited deities are vividly depicted in the ritual painting. The serial ritual procedures where the painting is moved to perform the ritual and is rolled up and put back to the original depository after the ritual epitomize the deities` journey down to the ritual space and back to their realms after attending the ceremony.
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