The ancient ruins of Nalanda Mahavihara, which is located in Bihar of eastern India, were the most famous Buddhist learning center and monastery from the Gupta Period to Pala Periods, This article examines the Buddhist monuments at Nalanda and sculptures from them in comparison with the accounts of East Asian pilgrims, It is not clear when the Nalanda Mahavihara was founded, but it is said that the great monastery was developed into a large center of Bud-dhism during the Gupta period. The Chinese monk Faxian, who traveled in India in the early fifth century, did not leave any specific record on Nalanda Mahiivihara, But most East Asian pilgrims such as Xuanzang and Yijing who traveled to India after the sixth century left many records on Nalanda Mahavihara, They stayed at the Mahavihara for a long period and left many valuable records portraying the religious and cultural characters of Nalanda Mahavihara. The high time of the Mahavihara was the Pila Period, However, with the invasion of the Muslims in the late 12th century, Nalanda Mahavihara became deserted and feu into oblivion by the 19th century. In the 19th century, British archaeologist paid attention to the site of Nalanda Mahavihara, and it was in the year of 1916 when the site was officially excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India for the first time. Until now, six temple sites and eleven monastery sites were excavated atthe ruins of Nalanda Mahavihara, The ruins also yielded a large number of Buddhist and Hindu sculpture made of stone, stucco, metal and earthen-ware, A furnace excavated at the site suggests that metal sculptures were made inside the monastery, From of the Gupta Period, Nalanoo Mahavihara was the center of Indian Buddhism, and many East Asian pilgrims visited the monastery, Therefore, Nalanoo Mahavihara is an important place for understanding the rela-tionship in Buddhist culture between India and East Asian. However, the accounts of East Asian pilgrims such as Xuanzang and Yijing do not agree with the currently extant remains of Nalanda Mahavmara, for most of them, were made after their visits. Nalanda Mahavihara has not been excavated in entirely; therefore it is quite likely that new monuments and artifacts will be discovered in the surrounding areas of the monastery in future excavations.