특집 : 진용(眞容): 인도 보드가야 항마촉지인 불좌상에 대한 중국 당대(唐代) 불교도들의 인식과 수용
분야
예체능 > 미술
저자
최선아 ( Sun Ah Choi )
발행기관
미술사와 시각문화학회
간행물정보
미술사와 시각문화 2009년, 제8권 8~39페이지(총32페이지)
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    This paper examines religious and cultural contexts in which Chinese Buddhists in late seventh century designated the Vajrasana Buddha statue enshrined at Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, India as "true visage." Initiated by the observation that the term "true visage," or zhenrong 眞容 was rarely used as a direct designation of religious icons in earlier period, this article tries to investigate following questions: why was the Buddha image in India called such a special name? What did the term, the "true visage" exactly mean? What were the implications of the term, particularly when it was used in relation to a Buddhist image? In order to answer these questions, this paper, first of all, closely reads textual sources relevant to the statue including Xuanzang`s Da Tang xiyu ji, Wang Xuance`s travelogue quoted in Fayuan zhulin, and Yijng`s Da Tang qiufa gaoseng zhuan. This close reading of the pilgrimage records reveals the courses through which the image obtained such a special name in late seventh century. Referring to the statue as true visage was a particular phenomenon closely related to Yijing, whereas Xuanzang and Wang did not name the image with such a special word. As a way of searching for the exact meaning of the term, the second part of this paper turns to an investigation of literary sources of earlier period. In particular, analysis of dedicatory inscriptions of the fifth and sixth centuries where the term frequently appears in the context of explicating the ontological status of religious icons reveals that the word originally denoted now-disappearing, thus invisible form of Buddha. Based on this observation, the next part of this paper discusses what it means to name the statue as true visage, and how such a phenomenon is related the issue of the reception of religious icons. Contrasting different attitudes toward the statue between Xuanzang presented in his biography and other pilgrim monks described in Yijing`s record, I suggest that changed reception of the statue-from the one which evokes the sense of absence to the one which represents, thus replaces the absent Buddha―underlay in the phenomenon of naming the statue as the true visage. Lastly, this paper illustrates how an examination of relevant visual materials reveals another intriguing aspect in the reception of the Vajrasana Buddha image in China, when they were illuminated in contrast to textual sources. Reminding of the fact that some of Chinese images made modelled after the Bodh Gaya statue in late seventh century were named as "Miraculous Image of Bodhi Tree" in their inscriptions, I suggest that the materiality of the image was still emphasized in the course of making replications, whereas the original image at the site was gaining an elevated existential status almost identical to its divine prototype. Furthermore, the fact that the statue was received as a miraculous image might present an important clue to the iconographic discrepancies between the original and copied derivatives, an issue which has long intrigued scholars over the past few decades.
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