특집 : 북방 다문천의 보탑 도상 해석 -도상 형성 원인과 원·고려 이전의 양상-
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예체능 > 미술
저자
임영애 ( Young Ac Lin )
발행기관
미술사와 시각문화학회
간행물정보
미술사와 시각문화 2010년, 제9권 86~115페이지(총30페이지)
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    국문초록
    사천왕상 중 북방 다문천이 어떤 연유로 보탑을 받들게 되었는지, 그리고 그 보탑은 동시대 실제 불탑과 특징이 일치하는지에 관해 의문을 가진다. 이 글에서는 북방 다문천을 그들의 수호신으로 삼고 있는 중앙아시아의 호탄에서 이러한 도상이 처음 형성되었을 것이라고 보고, 호탄국의 문헌사료와 회화에 주목한다. 아울러 사천왕상 보탑(寶塔)의 변화양상과 불탑(佛塔)의 상관관계를 중국 남북조시대와 통일신라의 북방 다문천을 중심으로 살펴본다.
    영문초록
    When we see the statues of the Four Heavenly Kings, we look for the statue hold a stupa in its hand. Then, without hesitation, we regard the statue with a stupa as Vaisravana. However, the earliest sutra stating that the statue holding a stupa is Vaisravana is Tuoluonijijing (Dharani`s collections of sutra) translated into Chinese in 653. For this reason, it is generally believed that the configuration of Vaisravana into a statue with a stupa in its hand was based on Tuoluonijijing. However, this view is questionable because there were a large number of Vaisravana statues holding a stupa before the translation of Tuoluonijijing into Chinese in 653 and that in comparison with extant statues of the Four Heavenly Kings, there are few agreements with the contents of Tuoluonijijing except the notion that ``Vaisravana holds a stupa.`` Then, what is the origin of the formula Vaisravana=stupa? This study was started from the question of through what process the concept Vaisravana=stupa, which had never been mentioned in early Buddhist literature, was developed and settled as an icon of Buddhist art. As mentioned earlier, this formula was valid only until the Yuan and Koryo Dynasties. In order to find the answer to the question, the author paid attention to Khotan in Central Asia, which worships Vaisravana as their ancestral god and guardian deity. Since early times, Khotan enshrined Vaisravana as the guardian deity of the country. Vaisravana appearing in the history books of Khotan did numerous works for the kingdom of Khotan. When Khotan was submerged, Vaisravana brought the land out of water, and it also protected the precious stupa that had risen out of the ground. In our estimation, for these reasons, Khotan might have created a large number of Vaisravana statues holding a stupa and established the icon Vaisravana=stupa in Central Asia. Another question is whether the stupa held by Vaisravana is the same as an actual Buddhist stupa in form. The stupa of Vaisravana is a single-story pagoda of unique shape in which a single-story body is placed on overturned lotus and is topped with multiple-layered umbrella. What is notable is that the body is single-story and an arch-type niche is made on each of the four sides. This type of stupa originated from the Central Asian region and was popular during the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties in China. The stupa held by Vaisravana statues in Central Asia and East Asia maintained its basic single-story shape for a long period, and as a result, stupas in Vaisravana were often different from actual Buddhist pagodas in the same period. The appearance of the Four Heavenly Kings statues like their face and armor changed from age to age but, interestingly, the shape of stupa was conservative, changing more slowly than real Buddhist pagodas. In Buddhist art, ``icon`` is understood as ``the expression of contents or teachings in sutras using visual images.`` Because the meaning of an icon expressed in image can be grasped properly only based on the knowledge of the contents and belief of Buddhist scripture, the correct understanding of sutras has been regarded as essential for Buddhist art research. However, we should not overlook the extremely common-sense fact that ‘icons`` depicted in sutras have to be created by someone, and the icon Vaisravana=stupa is a representative example showing the process clearly.
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