특집 : 고려시대 청자 투합(套盒)의 용도와 조형 계통
분야
예체능 > 미술
저자
장남원 ( Nam Won Jang )
발행기관
미술사와 시각문화학회
간행물정보
미술사와 시각문화 2010년, 제9권 174~201페이지(총28페이지)
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    국문초록
    이 글은 12세기 전반경 고려에 새로 등장하는 기물 가운데 청자 투합을 중심으로 그 용도와 조형 계통을 추론해 본 것이다. 투합은 당대 이래 왕릉이나 공적인 제사의례 공간등에서 의례용 진설기로 사용되었으며 특히 오대-송시기를 거치면서 관요나 공요(貢窯)에서 주로 제작된다. 고려에서도 인종장릉과 월출산의 제사유적등 왕실 및 공적인 예제의 공간에서 발견되며, 고려시기 가장 고급자기를 구웠던 강진의 사당리 요지에서만 제작되었다. 이를 통해 중국의 의례와 의례용 기물제도가 고려에 전해졌다고 보았으며 그 가운데 투합은 북송대 여요(汝窯)와 가장 밀접한 관계가 있었다. 이 과정에서 이미 중국 여러지역의 기물이 유입되어 사용되면서도 굳이 북송대 관요풍의 기물을 수용한데 대해 고려 인종대 특수한 정치적 상황과 결부시켜 새로운 질서와 권위의 표상화 과정과 관계가 있을 것으로 해석하였다.
    영문초록
    Around the early 12th century when the ceramic industry of Goryeo enters a period of stability and there is a smooth supply of royal ceramics centered around Gangjin, a new form of ceramics emerge during the Goryeo dynasty. It is especially true when looking at the types of unearthed artifacts at ‘Jang Neung(長陵),`` the tomb of Goryeo King Injong who held his funeral in 1146. A new form of celadon that was unseen before such as melon-shaped vases, cups with chrysanthemum petal patterns, bowls with a lid, and stackable side-dish box set makes its appearance. Whereas cups or bowls is a type of ceramics used in daily living, melon-shaped vases or stackable side-dish box set have almost never been discovered at normal remains of daily life and is very rare even at kiln sites. Especially, celadon stackable side-dish box set have never been produced during the early and late Goryeo period. Besides the Tomb of King Injong, the places where stackable side-dish box set was discovered include Mt. Wolchul at Yeongam, Jeollanam province. This place was a site where memorial services for ancestors were held to the mountains and streams under the supervision of the government during the Goryeo period. As a result of surveys conducted on the style and types of articles discovered along with stackable side-dish box set, its potential production site is suspected to be around the Sadang-ri area of Gangjin, Jeollanam province. This was a place where fine quality celadons were made and paid as a tribute to the government from the early to late Goryeo period. There are various forms of stackable side-dish box set from China and Goryeo according to its form including circular type, tetragonal type, and pentagonal type. In Korea, only instances produced as celadons during the Goryeo period waspassed down. It has been known as an article used for placing something on top of it as it was called ‘Banghyeongdae’(方形臺, square support), ‘Banghyeonggi’(方形器, square bowl), ‘Daejwa’(臺座, support), ‘Cheoksikhap’疊式盒(stackable side-dish box), ‘Tuhap’套盒(stackable side-dish box set). In China, it was produced with silver since the Tang dynasty, and square-shaped stackable side-dish box set was already being produced in Yueh Yao(越州窯) eand Yao Zhou Yao(耀州窯) during the Five Dynasties in the 10th Century. The celadons were produced in various forms in places such as Lu-yao(汝窯) and Nansung Guan yao(南宋官窯) after going through the Northern Sung(宋) and Southern Sung dynasty, and it was also produced and used even in Northern Liao(遼) area. These kiln sites were important official kilns or places where ceramics for tributary payments were made during the period from the Five Dynasty to the Song Dynasty. In fact, the remains where stackable side-dish box set was discovered were official places of the government such as royal tombs, Emperor`s tombs, and ancestral shrines. In these places, it was used as containers for putting light refreshments during ceremonies such as tea ceremonies. Goryeo stackable side-dish box set was closely related to presumed to be the official kilns of Northern Song Dynasty. The fact that these articles were passed on to Goryeo means the Chinese ceremony and ceremonial article system had been introduced to Goryeo. Although the diplomatic relationship between Goryeo and Song was restored at the end of the 11th Century, the Khitans and the Jurchens were confronting each other in the northern region, and Goryeo had to prepare for conquering the Jurchens. Therefore, it is presumed that Chinese culture and system were fully introduced during the reign of King Yejong in the early 12th Century. Especially, during the reign of King Injong(1122-1146), the royal authority was strongly challenged by the outbreak of the Coup of Yi Ja-gyeom(1126) and Myo Cheong`s Rebellion, and even the King`s authority was threatened due to the burning of the royal palace. Thus, in order to establish the soverign authority of the king and strengthen the royal authority, King Injong quickly carried out reforms. During this period in Goryeo, various celadons and white porcelain from Northern and Southern China were already introduced through private trade and were being used by the royal family and civilians. Therefore, by selectively bringing in the ceremonial containers(禮器) from Northern Song and modifying the article system, the King must have tried to display new order and authority. It seems this situation could have served as the opportunity for newly producing ceremonial containers such as Northern Sung official kiln type stackable side-dish box set.
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