조선 중기 회화의 특징은 중국 절파(浙派) 화풍의 유입과 확산으로 규정할 수 있다. 본 논문은 중국 절파의 시조로 일컬어지는 대진(戴進) 화풍의 수용 양상을 통해 조선 중기 절파계 화풍의 형성과정을 추적한다.
The formation of the Korean Zhe school was inseparable from the introduction and popularity of Dai Jin`s (1388-1462) style. Although there is no textual evidence detailing the reception of the landscape manner of Dai Jin, some surviving paintings from the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries show the ways in which the founder of the Zhe school played a significant role in the shaping of the Korean Zhe school. Red Cliff, attributed to An Kyon, now in the National Museum of Korea, is the earliest extant painting illuminating the reception of Dai Jin in fifteenth-century Korea. The painting reveals a striking resemblance in composition to Poetic Thoughts in a Riverside Pavilion by Dai Jin, now in the Liaoning Provincial Museum. The exaggerated form of thrusting and unstable distant mountains and the extremely fluid, scribbly, and split brushwork featured in Red Cliff are indicative of the direct stylistic influence from Dai Jin. Returning Home, attributed to Kang Hui-an, now in the Tokyo National Museum, is, in fact, an early seventeenth-century painting close in composition to Returning Late from a Spring Evening, attributed to Dai Jin, now in the National Palace Museum, Taipei. Such stylistic features as the tall pines anchoring the composition on the right, the massive mountains with a small, empty studio, and the mountain village nestled in mists in the middle ground are commonly found in both paintings. The use of broad ink washes and swift strokes in modeling mountains and rocks suggests the Korean painter`s stylistic indebtedness to Dai Jin. The reception of Dai Jin`s style in sixteenth-century Korean painting is further evidenced in Yi Hung-hyo`s Landscape, dated 1593, in a private collection, Korea, close in style to Escaping the Heat in the Summer Mountains by Dai Jin, now in the Chang Foundation, Taiwan. The tall, massive, and unstable mountain textured with blended ink washes in the background, precariously leaning and thrusting forward, and the relaxed atmosphere are commonly featured in both paintings. Dai Jin`s technical mastery of washes, dark ink, and unpainted areas in modeling landscape masses to suggest substance, recesses, shadow and light is actively emulated in Landscape. Dai Jin`s style continued to inspire Korean painters. Even in the early eighteenth century, his style was sought-after by such painters as Chin Jae-hye (1691-1769). Playing the Lute Under the Moon, now in the Seoul National University Museum, is one of his representative works showing the last phase of the Korean Zhen school. Dai Jin`s The Hermit Xu You Resting by a Stream, now in the Cleveland Museum of Art, could perhaps be one of the prototypes for Playing the Lute Under the Moon. The compositional strategy of locating the focus of the picture centrally, in other words, pressing the tightly-focused foreground elements to the front of the picture, the combination of vertically packed and horizontally free-flowing spaces, and the interlocking of large landscape units, as masterfully demonstrated in Dai Jin`s painting, are used in Playing the Lute Under the Moon. The most brilliant painter representing the last phase of the Korean Zhe school is Kim Myong`guk (1600-after 1622). Kim`s improvisatory, rough, and untrammeled style was deeply indebted to the work of Wu Wei (1459- 1508), Wang E (ca. 1462-after 1541), and such masters of the Wild and Heterodox branch of the Chinese Zhe school as Zhang Lu (ca. 1490-ca. 1563). Travel Through Deep Snow Mountains, currently in the National Museum of Korea, shows a scholar mounted on a donkey and his attendant carrying his belongings setting off on a journey and turning to bid farewell to the servant standing at the gate of his cottage. This farewell scene is set in a winter landscape of snow-covered mountains treated with rapid, bold, and jagged brushwork and harsh light-dark contrasts. The tilted blocky mountains forms impart instability to the composition. It is interesting to note that the composition of Travel Through Deep Snow Mountains could have been derived from those of such paintings as Dai Jin`s Winter Landscape, now in the Freer Gallery, a painting dealing with the story of the highly esteemed scholar-official of the Later Han dynasty Yuan An (d. 92) sleeping through the snow. The story of Yuan An sleeping through the snow became one of the most popular subjects in Zhe school painting for its didactic function. The use of the theme in a traditional imperial context was to instruct government officials going out to take up administrative office to look after common people. Travel Through Deep Snow Mountains and Winter Landscape share the basic composition and essential narrative details. The motif of a scholar on the bridge turning back towards the house and the gesturing figure at the gate appears in both paintings, indicating that the theme of Travel Through Deep Snow Mountains is most probably inspired by the story of Yuan An sleeping through the snow.