Hyun Soo Kim, Jong Woon Cheon, Min Su Kim, Chang Kil Jung, Kyung Rok Kim, Jae Won Choi, Dong Woo Kang and Sun Young Kim1 Departments of Internal Medicine and Pathology1, DongKang Medical Center, Ulsan, Korea Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative disease and caused by Actinomycosis species, principally Actinomyces israelii, which are part of the normal inhabitant on the mucous membrane of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. It usually affects cervicofacial, thoracic and abdominal tissue. Cervicofacial type has the highest percentage of occurrence with 50%. Actinomycosis frequently occurs following dental extraction, jaw surgery, chronic infection or poor oral hygiene. It may also be considered as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients such as malignancy, human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes mellitus, steroid usage or alcoholism. But, actinomycosis rarely occurs in adults with normal immunity and rare in the esophagus. We report an unusual case of esophageal actinomycosis which was developed in a patient with normal immunity and improved by therapy with intravenous penicillin G followed oral amoxicillin, and we also reviewed the associated literature.