The purpose of this study was to identify the influencing factors of mothers` confidence in their maternal role during the early postpartum period. Methods: Participants were 178 postpartum women who delivered at three specialized obstetrics and gynecology facilities and used the postpartum care facility in city B. Data were collected from February to April, 2012 using the scales of measurements of self-confidence in maternal role performance, ma-ternal self-esteem, mother-to-infant attachment, social support, and childcare stress. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression were used with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program to analyze the data. Results: The scores for self-confidence in the maternal role showed significant negative correlations with the scores of childcare stress(r=.40,p＜.001).Parity and maternal attachment were significant predictors and ac-counted for 97.4%of the variance in self-confidence in the maternal role. Conclusion: To strengthen self-confidence in the maternal role of early postpartum mothers, prenatal class programs need to be complemented in order to reduce in the maternal role of early postpartum mothers, prenatal class programs need to be complemented in order to reduce childcare stress and promote mother-to-infant attachment.