This paper is designed to research on the current situation of Muslims in China, their history of cultural acculturation, their religious identity, and the cases of infringement of Human Rights in Chinese Islam. According to the policy of the government, the Muslims in China are identified not by their religion but by their ethnicity. In chapter Ⅱ, the current situation of Chinese Muslims is presented. The largest group of Muslims in China is the Hui, and the second largest one is the Uighur. The Hui is spread throughout the whole country, but the Uighur is living in northwest China, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. The majority of Muslims in China are Sunni and follow the Hanafi school of law. The masjids are diverse, some resemble Buddhist temple, some are Islamic style, and some are Chinese style. In chapter Ⅲ, the historical background of Chinese Muslims is depicted. The Mogolian Yuan dynasty forcibly recruited so many Muslims from the Abbasid, and used the Muslims` manpower to develop their empire. The Ming dynasty was the Han Chinese empire, and required many regulations to control foreigners, including Muslims. They regarded non-Hans as barbarians, and denoted the Hui Muslims as the dog radicals. In the Qing dynasty, the Chinese Muslims suffered a series of government regulations and faced so many persecutions. During the Cultural Revolution, the government regarded Islam as illegal, outlawed it, and persecuted Muslim leaders. In chapter Ⅳ, the revival of religious identity of Muslims in China is explained. After the Cultural Revolution, the Muslims in China tried to rebuild their Muslim communities, restore the religious institutions, and revive the religious activities. The purpose of this revival activities is to promote religious knowledge, expand Muslim networks, and develop Muslim identity. In chapter Ⅴ, the concerns of Human Rights and the cases of Human Rights harassment are presented. After 9/11 2001, the Chinese government claimed arresting hundreds of Uighur Muslim extremists in Afghanistan, and listed the ETIM as a terrorist organization. After this claim, the persecution and suppression against the Uighur Muslims are increased and strengthened. During the attacks of Chinese government against the Uighur, the violations on the Human Rights in the social, legal, cultural, political, religious fields are witnessed. The Muslims in China are controlled by the government surveillance and potential harassment, but they regard Islam a major source of pride and conviction.