딤미 현상에 대한 연구 -종교적 차별성과 경제적 차별성을 중심으로-
분야
사회과학 > 정치/외교학
저자
김종도 ( Jong Do Kim )
발행기관
한국중동학회
간행물정보
한국중동학회논총 2013년, 제33권 제3호, 293~309페이지(총17페이지)
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27900759.pdf [무료 PDF 뷰어 다운로드]
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    The history is judged with two sides by the historians. Islam exists on the earth focusing on peace, equality and brotherhood mottos for world peace, while laying the foundation of coexistence. However, some of the magistrates in Islam is evaluated by a dual evaluation by showing their political aspects different from these mottos. Dhimmies in Umayyad and Abbas dynasties were monotheists referring to the protected people who had lived under Islamic rule, and enjoyed autonomy. In reward for this benefit, they should pay poll tax (Jizya)and land tax (Kharaz). Under the Rulers in Islam, they were treated on tolerance and on intolerance from time to time. This paper is designed to study on discrimination against dhimmis focusing on religious and economical aspects. Until now, almost of the earlier studies have dealt the subjects on the dhimmies in the view of tolerance. But this paper focused on the dhimmies in the view of intolerance in order to look another aspect in Islamic history. In the religious discrimination, we specifically examined how dhimmies historically had been treated religious discrimination how the structure of inequality between Muslims and them was formed on the basis of repressed religious differentiation. This discrimination appeared in the different ways through the liturgy, worship places and sometimes massacre by politicians or forced conversion. Sometimes the dhimmies` daily lives throughout their history were like the aspects of war, aggression, tyranny, famine, epidemic and a wave of fanaticism and plagues. In the economic discrimination, the dhimmies were being manipulated as means to levy Kharaj(the land tax) and Jizya(poll tax) because of the lack of finance resulting from territorial expansions by the Caliphs. Also they should pay higher commercial and travel taxes as an avariz. Due to historical reasons between Arabs and Jews, the Jews were regarded as a hostile being in some of Morrocan proverbs. In spite of these discriminations, to some extent, but one thing is certain that the dhimmies were to guarantee freedom of religion, to protect from external enemies, autonomy, the protection of life and property from Islam. It is true that the sad history of the dhimmies` sacrifice and cooperation in Islamic societies was nutritious elements in protecting the glory and authority of the Muslims.
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