글래드스턴의 포퓰리즘 -원리, 맥락, 스타일-
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인문과학 > 서양사
저자
김기순 ( Ki Soon Kim )
발행기관
한국서양사학회
간행물정보
서양사론 2013년, 제116권 64~89페이지(총26페이지)
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    politics. But Gladstone`s populism in these studies has not been systematically analyzed. I have attempted in this paper to articulate Gladstone`s populism in terms of principle, context and style, and thereby to differentiate his from other types of populism, which are currently used largely in a negative sense. (1) Gladstone`s populism was based on Evangelicalism, especially its teaching about conscience, atonement, providence and action. Unlike the orthodox individualcentered Evangelicalism, however, Gladstone at the same time emphasized communitarian and collective conscience, and he tried to achieve the ideal of national moral conscience throughout his long political career. In this process he succeeded in establishing himself as the representative of national conscience and became the ``People`s William`` and a populist. (2) Gladstone`s populism operated in the context of democracy. He was, in his early years, a Tory and antidemocrat, but he gradually moved towards being a ``demophile`` in the matter of franchise extension. In his advocacy of extending the boundary of franchise the crucial point was his belief that the masses had a moral conscience superior to the self-interests of the established ruling classes. (3) Gladstone was also an innovator of political style in the age of democracy. Based on his ability as an orator and derived from his impassioned moral conviction that simplified current problems almost in Manichaean terms, his charisma appealed to the people and mobilized them towards his and their goals. His charisma also appealed to the rational judgment both of platform audience and newspaper readers. (4) Though the ``classes`` criticized his politics as demagogy and dictatorship, Gladstone`s populism was neither of them. His populism presupposed representative democracy, not direct democracy, and he did not bribe the people with ``bread and circus``. Rather, he appealed to and praised the people as moral and rational beings who could resist the enticement of materialism and power-hunger. In this sense, he wanted to stem the turn to the right, rather than to the left, of the British society.
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