We examined the cause of a disease outbreak in adult olive f lounder Paralichthys olivaceus , which occurred at a Korean aquaculture farm in Korea in 2011. The principal signs included an expanded abdomen and congested liver, with persistent mortality (a little over two months). At the beginning of the outbreak, farm administrators misjudged the disease as bacterial in origin, because of the aforementioned signs, persistent mortality, and the detection of bacterial species, including Vibrio spp. and Streptococcus spp. Moreover, the detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) by reverse trasnscription-PCR analysis was complicated by use of the VHS-VN primer set, which has been in general use recently, because it produced weak bands in some samples. Therefore, we recommend the use of at least two different primer sets in the diagnosis of VHSV. Our histopathological f indings indicate that necrotizing myocarditis could be considered a pathogenic sign of VHSV infection.