The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between professional autonomy and ideology among Korean physicians and to investigate how these factors affect job satisfaction like social status satisfaction and economic reward satisfaction. This study utilized a self-administered questionnaire survey and collected data nationwide between July and August, 2003. 211 responses were used for final analysis. SPSS 12.0 was used for a chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis, independent t-test and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The results of this study were as follows. First, many variables of ideological factor were related to job satisfaction. Second, physicians expecting the change of political influence has patient-centered attitude. Third, there were many relationships between professional autonomy and ideology variables. Fourth, physicians expecting the change of political influence and customer-centered healthcare system showed more job satisfaction. In conclusion, professional autonomy is related to ideology, and in order to enhance job satisfaction, ideological factor needs more development. In addition, market-oriented healthcare system would contribute to enhance the job satisfaction of physicians expecting the change of political influence and customer-centered healthcare system.